APPLE



Botanical Name: Malus sylvestris, Mill

Family Name: Rosaceae

Description:

Apple tree is a rather small. It has a sturdy, erect trunk that divides into strong branches to create a fine crown. When young, its bark is smooth but it becomes rough with age. The dark green, alternate leaves are oval with a short petiole. The inflorescence consists of clusters of 4-6 flowers emerging from a resottle of leaves. Each flower has a persistent calyx of 5 sepals and pinkish-white, 5 petalled corollas. The rosy object is usually referred to as its fruit. It contains dark seeds in the light-colored pulp.

Distribution:

They are cultivated in most parts of the world.

Part Used:

Fruit

Properties:

Antacid, nutritive, tranquillizer, anti-uricaemic, anti-diarrhoeic, cardiotonic.

Forms of Use:

Fruit, juice, infusion





Nutritional value:



These fruits are valued mainly as dessert fruits. Some types, particularly those with high acid content, are used for culinary purposes. They may be preserved for later use after slicing and drying them. They are also canned. Jams and jellies are made from them. The juice extracted from this fruit is used fresh or after fermentation into cider, wine and vinegar. Fruit brandy is obtained after distilling the cider.

Nutrients present:

Moisture: 70%

Protein: 0.2%

Fat: 0.5%

Fiber: 1.0%

Carbohydrate: 13.4%

Calcium: 10 mg

Phosphorus: 14 mg

Iron: 1.1 mg

Vitamin B1: 0.12 mg

Vitamin B2: 0.03 mg

Niacin: 0.2 mg

Vitamin C: 2by 100 gm

Potassium: 111 mg

Sodium: 2 mg

Chlorine: 4 mg

Sulfur: 5 mg

Copper: 85 mg per 100 gm

Invert Sugar: 9.5- 17.4

Glucose: 2.5- 5.6

Fructose: 6.5- 11.8

Sucrose: 1.5- 6.0

Malic acid: 0.3- 1.0

Tannin: 0.02- 0.15%

Caloric Value: 59

Sugar constitutes 80% of the total carbohydrates of this ripe fruit. Fructose (60%) is the principal sugar component followed by glucose 25% and sucrose 15%.

Malic acid is the principal acid- about 90- 95% of the total acid in this fruit. Citric, lactic and succinic acids are also present barring other acids in traces.



Products and Preservation:



Dried Apples and powder:

These dehydrated fruits, their flour or powder find use in bakeries. This fruit's flour is also used in the treatment of certain types of infant diarrhea. Vacuum shelf driers are used to obtain a product of superior quality.

Canned and Frozen Apple:

Canned fruits are usually available in large packing and are used in pies. Their segments are preserved by dehydrate freezing which involves partial drying of prepared fruit to 50% moisture and freezing.

Apple Juice:

It is the favored by-product of this fruit. Ripe and sound fruits are pressed out in basket-press. The juice thus obtained is strained through a thin cotton cloth and bottled after pasteurization. Fresh juice is an amber colored fluid with mild, delicate flavor.

Fruit Jam:

Jam is one of the most popular preparations. It is a cardio tonic and controls palpitation. It is prepared by slicing apple, adding equal amount of sugar, citric acid and potassium meta bisulphate.

Apple brandy, cider, butter, pomace are the other by-products.





Medicinal uses:



1. They are considered valuable as anti-scorbutic fruits.

2. They are rich in pectin and are useful in diarrhea.

3. Their juice, syrup and vinegar reduce curd tension of milk used in infant feeding.

4. Murabba or jam, a preserve popular in India, is regarded as a stimulant for heart. It is reported to relieve physical heaviness and mental strain.

5. It is a natural source of colloidal iron that does not cause diarrhea, so it suits all kinds of people deficient in iron.

6. It cures anemia.

7. An apple a day keeps the doctor away is an old saying, which is still true.




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Fruits and Vegetables




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