HEPATITIS-B Vaccination in Pregnancy
Hepatitis-B vaccination during pregnancy is very important. Without immunization, up to 90% of fetuses of infected women may become infected. Of these 5% are infected in uterus, while the rest acquire their infection from maternal blood and body fluids during delivery.
Chronic carriage is more common when infection has been acquired prenatally or in childhood.
Mode of Transmission
Parenteral drug abuse, sexual activity, and transfusion of blood or blood products are the main mode of transmission of hepatitis B, although vertical transmission from an infected mother to the fetus is a major factor in developing countries.
There are two immunization products for hepatitis B.
HEPATITIS B IMMUNOGLOBULIN (HBIG)
• Hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) provides immediate, temporary passive immunity after accidental inoculation or contamination with an infected product.
• HBIG is given in doses of 500 IU for adults and 200 IU for the newborn.
HEPATITIS B VACCINE (HB)
• Hepatitis B vaccine produces an immune response.
• Antibody levels of 100 mu per ml are considered protective and less than 10 mu per ml is considered a non-response to the vaccine.
• A level of 10 – 100 mu per ml is a poor response and requires a booster dose.
• Hepatitis B vaccine is given into the deltoid muscle as vaccine efficacy may be reduced when given into the buttocks.
• The dosage of Hepatitis B vaccine is specified by respective manufacturers.
Facts about Hepatitis B Vaccination
- Pregnant woman who are negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and considered to be at risk of acquiring hepatitis B infection should be offered vaccination with HBIG and HB vaccine during pregnancy.
- HBIG does not suppress the immune response to HB vaccine and neither product is known to cause any fetal abnormality.
- As most fetal infection is postpartum, neonates of carrier mothers or mothers infected during pregnancy should be vaccinated with HBIG within 12 hours of birth, followed by HB vaccine within 7 days and at 1 month and at 6 month.
Read more about immunization during pregnancy -
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Travel Vaccination during Pregnancy
Immunization in Pregnancy
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