TRAVEL VACCINATION In Pregnancy
Travel vaccination in pregnancy is advocated when traveling to regions of the world - where specific conditions may be endemic and the risk of infection is high.
HEPATITIS A is transmitted by the faeco-oral route. The risk of infection comes from travelling to endemic areas. Travelers to areas of moderate to high endemic risk are advised to be vaccinated, specially if sanitation and food hygiene is likely to be poor.
Hepatitis A vaccine is a formaldehyde inactivated vaccine and the risks of congenital malformation are low.
However, the use in pregnancy has not been fully assessed and it should only be given if there is a definite risk of infection.
Human normal immunoglobulin (HNIG) offers short term immunity against hepatitis a infection and may be a more suitable prophylactic measure for pregnant woman travelling for short periods to endemic areas.
Typhoid is also transmitted by the faeco-oral route and therefore is a disease of areas where sanitation and food hygiene is poor.
Three typhoid vaccines are available –
1. Monovalent whole cell typhoid vaccine
2. Typhoid Vi polysaccharide antigen vaccine
3. Oral Typhoid vaccine
YELLOW FEVER vaccination is required for travel into highly endemic areas. The immunity conferred lasts at least 10 years and is probably life long.
CHOLERA vaccination is no longer a requisite for travel as it only gives limited personal protection. It does not prevent spread of the disease.
RABIES vaccination should only be used in pregnancy if the woman is travelling to a high risk area and the risk of exposure is high.
The appropriate globulin may be used for post exposure prophylaxis.
MENINGOCOCCAL vaccine may be used when unavoidable, e.g. during an epidemic or when travelling for long periods to high risk areas.
Read more on immunization during pregnancy in following articles -
Hepatitis B Vaccination during Pregnancy
Varicella Zoster virus Vaccination during Pregnancy
Immunization In Pregnancy
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